Quantitative research methods
Poll method – is carried out by means of the structured questionnaire offered for filling in to the respondents, belongs to certainsample of population for receiving certain information.
The structured data collection – use of the formalized questionnaire with the questions located in a certain order.
Poll by phone:
- Poll by phone
- Traditional telephone survey
- oTelephone survey by means of the computer (CATI)
- Personal poll
- At home
- On the street
- In shopping center
- Personal poll by means of the computer (CAPI)
- Post poll
- Post poll
- Post panel
- Electronic poll
- By mail
- Through Internet
Traditional poll by phone – the interviewer calls a certain sample of respondents and consistently asks them a number of questions, according to the questionnaire, noting in the answers of respondents.
The telephone survey by means of the computer (CATI) –the computerized questionnaire is offered to the respondents by phone. Dialing to respondents, an audio recording of interview are carried out automatically by means of the specialized software.
Polls at home of respondents (room poll). Interview happens at respondents’ home. A task of the interviewer – to contact respondents, to ask questions and to write down answers. For carrying out room polls route sheets with the list of addresses (where it is planned to conduct survey) are formed in advance.
Personal polls on the street. The interviewer, being on the populous street, invites passersby to answer questions of the questionnaire. Respondents answer questions directly on the street, without coming into the specialized room. In certain cases they earn small reward for answers.
Personal polls in shopping centers. Poll happens in the territory of shopping centers. Respondents are "intercepted" at movement on premises of the center and invited in specialized places, invited to answer questions of the questionnaire.
Personal poll by means of the computer (CAPI). Poll is carried out in the specialized room (for example, in the territory of shopping center or on the street with high degree of possibility) equipped with computers and Internet communication. The respondent answers questions of the questionnaire, being at the computer terminal. Poll is carried out by means of the specialized software which allows sending results of poll in online mode to the server of the customer which has opportunity directly observe poll course, fix number of the completed questionnaires, time and duration of answers and other parameters.
Poll by mail. At this type of poll of the questionnaire are dispatched to previously selected potential respondents. The typical set for poll by mail includes two envelopes, the cover letter, the questionnaire and sometimes remuneration. Respondents fill and return questionnaires. In this case there is no verbal contact between the interviewer and the respondent.
Post panels. The post panel consists of big representative nation-wide sample of households (families), which agreed to take part in periodic polls by mail, testing of products and telephone surveys. Members of households can receive various remuneration for their participation.
Polls by e-mail. Respondents receive the questionnaire by e-mail, fill it in and send it back to organizers of research.
Polls in the Internet. This type of polls are carried out with uses of a HTML format. The questionnaire is placed on the web site. The respondent comes to the corresponding link to the site and in online mode fills in the questionnaire.
Variety of questions
Control of environment of collecting the data
Control of interviewers’ work
Volume of data
Approachability of respondent
Awareness of anonymity
Receiving “sensitive” info
Possibility to distort the data
Time of servey
Costs of conducting survey
Scale of factor:
. . . Low
. . . Medium
. . . High
. . . . . . Medium High
. . . Potentially high
. . . . . . LowMedium
. - Not applicable
Description of factors:
Flexibility of procedure - defines the possibility of interaction of the respondent and interviewer, and also respondent and the questionnaire.
A variety of questions - depends on flexibility of procedure and ability of the respondent to understand and perceive the asked questions, reflects quantity and a thematic range of questions in the questionnaire.
The accompanying tools – opportunity to use at poll, for example, goods samples, its prototypes, models of advertising, presentation, etc.
Sample control – ability effectively and rationally capture all sample units, defined for carrying out poll.
Control of the environment of data collection– control of the researcher after environment in which the respondent fills in the questionnaire. Environment affects the psychological state of the respondent, his attention and involvement in questioning process.
Control of interviewers – possibility of constant control of the work of interviewers.
The volume of data – is defined by poll duration, a variety of questions and other parameters
Approachability of respondents – percentage of successfully complete interviews in total number of attempts made.
Awareness of anonymity – understanding by respondents of the fact that the interviewer won't manage to identify their personality.
The social acceptability – tendency of respondents to give the answers accepted from the point of view of society irrespective of if they are truthful or not.
"Sensitive" information – degree of sharpness of questions (for example, a question about financial info of the respondent), sincerity of respondents depends on it.
Possibility of distortion of information by the interviewer – possibility of conscious and irresponsible distortion of information by the interviewer for the purpose of the fastest completion of poll and receiving necessary number of questionnaires. The interviewer can distort information of the respondent for the purpose of fulfilling the set quota;he can misssome questions, etc.
Speed – time demanded for carrying out poll.
Expenses – the volume of costs of carrying out poll.
Supervision methods – registration of behavior models of people, objects and options of succession of events on a systematic basis for obtaining the interested information.
The structured supervision – a method of supervision at which the researcher has a clear idea of behavior models which will become an object of supervision, and also methods by means of which this behavior model can be estimated.
Unstructured supervision – a method of supervision at which registration of all events connected with object of supervision is carried out without their preliminary specification.
Supervision under natural conditions – supervision over behavior of object in natural environment.
Supervision in artificial conditions – supervision over behavior of object in artificially created environment.
Personal observation – the observer writes down all events with object in their sequence without controlling and without directing the events happening to object.
Supervision with use of technical means – a way of supervision at which record of results is made by technical tools.
Audit – supervision at which the researcher registers brands, quantity and packaging of products in a residence of the respondent.
The content analysis – objective, systematic and quantitatively determined characteristic of key parameters of communicative links.
The analysis of traces – supervision at which collection of information is carried out on physical signs or traces of eventspassed.